Global MPI 2016

This page highlights findings from the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) and provides a range of resources. The Global MPI was updated in June 2016 and now covers 102 countries in total, which are home to 75 per cent of the world’s population, or 5.2 billion people. Of this proportion, 30 per cent of people (1.6 billion) are identified as multidimensionally poor.

Briefingsdata tablesmethodology

Key findings

  • Over half (54%) of people in the African countries analysed suffer from multidimensional poverty: 544 million people endure multidimensional poverty in 46 countries analysed in the region.
  • Among 35 countries where changes to poverty over time were analysed, 30 of them have reduced poverty significantly. Rwanda had stellar performance.
  • The MPI registered impressive reductions in some unexpected places. 19 sub-national regions – regional ‘runaway’ successes – have reduced poverty even faster than Rwanda. The fastest MPI reduction was found in Likouala in the Republic of the Congo.
  • The Sahel and Sudanian Savanna Belt contains most of the world’s poorest sub-regions, showing the interaction between poverty and harsh environmental conditions.
  • Poverty looks very different in different parts of the continent. While in East Africa deprivations related to living standards contribute most to poverty, in West Africa child mortality and education are the biggest problems.
  • The deprivations affecting the highest share of MPI poor people in Africa are cooking fuel, electricity and sanitation.
  • More people tend to suffer from MPI poverty than $1.90/day poverty. Yet nine important exceptions, where income poverty exceeds MPI, are in Africa. The number of people in multidimensional poverty in East Africa outnumbers those in West Africa, but we would not get similar conclusions if we only focus on income poverty.
  • East and West Africa have the largest number of poor people both in terms of income and multidimensional poverty. North Africa is the least poor region.
  • The number of poor people went down in only 12 countries. In 18 countries, although the incidence of MPI fell, population growth led to an overall rise in the number of poor people.

Policy Briefings

Download briefing papers on key findings:

Data tables

Detailed MPI data is available to download from the tables below. Tables 1.1 – 7 were updated in June 2015 and are appendices to the Methodological Note – Summer 2016. They include:

  • Detailed MPI results at the country level (102 countries)
  • Breakdown of MPI results by rural and urban areas (100 countries)
  • MPI at the sub-national level for 962 regions of 78 countries
  • Changes to multidimensional poverty over time for 50 countries and their sub-national regions where possible

The tables are divided into sheets to help in navigating through the data. The chart below provides detailed information on what is included in each data table and sheet. You can download the tables by clicking on the icons in the right-hand column.

Table Contents Download
Tables 1.1-2.3 Main MPI results, headcount ratio by dimensions, contribution of deprivations and other measures of poverty and wellbeing at the national level (102 countries) Tables 1.1-2.3 excel
Tables 3.1-4.3 Multidimensional poverty, headcount ratio by dimension and contribution of deprivations in rural and urban areas (100 countries) Excel
Tables 5.1-5.4 Multidimensional poverty, headcount ratio by dimension and contribution of deprivations at the sub-national level (962 regions of 78 countries) Excel
Tables 6.1-6.6 Changes to MPI poverty over time, including annualised changes in headcount ratio and intensity, changes in each indicator at the national level and changes in destitution where available (50 countries)
Table 7 The table presents an archive of all MPI estimations published since 2010. These are not harmonized for comparisons over time (for harmonized estimations see Table 6). Table 7 covers 232 estimations for 118 countries in 2016. Excel

Citations of data and tables

Please cite data tables 1.1 – 7 as: Citation: Alkire, S., Jindra, C., Robles, G., and Vaz, A. (2016). “Multidimensional Poverty Index 2016: Brief methodological note and results.” OPHI Briefing 42, University of Oxford.

Please note Table 7 also draws upon the following papers from previous years:

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Winter 2015/2016: Brief methodological note and results

Multidimensional Poverty Index 2015: Brief methodological note

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Winter 2014/2015: Brief methodological note and results
Multidimensional Poverty Index 2014: Brief methodological note and results
Multidimensional Poverty Index 2013: Brief methodological note and results
Multidimensional Poverty Index 2011: Brief methodological note
Alkire, S. and Santos, M. E. (2010). “Acute multidimensional poverty: A new index for developing countries.” OPHI Working Paper 38, University of Oxford.

Policy Briefings

Download briefing papers on key findings:

Regional Highlights

Briefing papers highlighting key findings are available for the following regions:

Further Resources

Further information can be found in our country-specific briefing interactive data bank and Global MPI data tables. You can also read Global MPI case studies and view our at-a-glance infographics.

Watch a video of the Global 2016 MPI Launch


2016 Global MPI methodological note (pdf)