Link to Facebook PageLink to RSS Feed Link to Twitter

Missing Dimensions of Poverty

Money alone is an incomplete measure of ‘poverty’. Human development is about giving people the opportunities to live lives they value, and focuses on what people are able to be and to do. OPHI has identified the following five ‘Missing Dimensions’ of poverty that deprived people cite as important in their experiences of poverty.

To collect better data on these ‘missing dimensions’, OPHI has designed five short, 8-10 minute questionnaire modules that can be integrated into national household surveys. For more information, and to access the modules in different languages, see the Survey Modules page.


Informal employment, security and safety at work


Formal and informal employment, hazards, income,self-employment, responses to shock and fair treatment


Agency and the power people have to shape their lives


Control over actions in public and private domains, how autonomy, coercion and the desire to please others shape action.


Freedom from violence against people & property


Violent crime and conflict-related violence against people and property (e.g. theft) and responses to violence.


Relationships and freedom from shame and humiliation


Value of relations and social connections, both intrinsically and instrumentally, aspects of shame, social isolation.


Happiness, satisfaction and a meaningful life


Happiness, overall satisfaction and satisfaction by domain, psychological wellbeing and meaning in life.

Join OPHI Mailing List

Email address:     


Multidimensional Poverty Indices Launched in Costa Rica and El Salvador Both Costa Rica and El Salvador launched a national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) on the same day, October 29th.  OPHI’s co-founder John Hammock and Outreach Technical Director Adriana Conconi participated in these launches, John Hammock in Costa Rica’s capital, San Jose, and Adriana Conconi in San Salvador. In their remarks the OPHI representatives stressed both […] Read more

Global Monitoring Report includes first-time coverage of Multidimensional Poverty Index The Global Monitoring Report (GMR) 2015/2016, produced jointly by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, details findings from the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for the first time. Read more

OPHI’s work included in top 20 global development impact case studies OPHI’s work has been included in the top 20 most impressive examples of UK research contributing to global development, a list compiled by the UK Collaborative on Development Sciences (UKDCS). Read more

Measuring Multidimensional Poverty in Latin America: Previous Experience and the Way Forward This paper states the need to design a multidimensional poverty index for the Latin America region (LA-MPI) that can monitor poverty trends in a cross-country comparable way, yet is also relevant to the particular regional context. Read more

Measuring Conjoint Vulnerabilities in Italy: An Asset-Based Approach This paper uses an asset-based approach, focusing on the resources that individuals and households can draw upon to reduce economic vulnerability and strengthen their resilience. Read more

Measuring and Decomposing Inequality among the Multidimensionally Poor Using Ordinal Data: A Counting Approach A paper by Suman Seth and Sabina Alkire proposes the use of a separate decomposable inequality measure using Demographic Health Survey datasets. Read more