Money alone is an incomplete measure of ‘poverty’. Human development is about giving people the opportunities to live lives they value, and focuses on what people are able to be and to do. OPHI has identified five ‘Missing Dimensions’ of poverty that deprived people cite as important in their experiences of poverty.
Formal and informal employment, hazards, income, self-employment, responses to shock and fair treatment
Agency and the power people have to shape their lives
Control over actions in public and private domains, how autonomy, coercion and the desire to please others shape action.
Freedom from violence against people and property
Violent crime and conflict-related violence against people and property (e.g. theft) and responses to violence.
Relationships and freedom from shame and humiliation
Value of relations and social connections, both intrinsically and instrumentally, aspects of shame, social isolation.
Happiness, satisfaction and a meaningful life
Happiness, overall satisfaction and satisfaction by domain, psychological wellbeing and meaning in life.
To collect better data on these ‘missing dimensions’, OPHI has designed five short, 8-10 minute questionnaire modules that can be integrated into national household surveys. For more information, and to access the modules in different languages, see the Survey Modules page.