Ongoing Debates and Research Topics
Watch video (includes video guide)
The list below is not comprehensive, but covers some of the key research issues that have been identified by OPHI researchers. Please watch Part 2 of the video to get a further explanation by Sabina Alkire.
Research Issues: Data for MPI
- Can we improve international data for MPI calculations?
- Should we ‘call for’ a survey having a specific set of dimensions and indicators? And which?
Research Issues: General data
- Data Constraints: Most criticisms address these (why don’t you include _____?).
- identify ‘new’ questionnaires on standard surveys
- identify ‘new’ dimensions
- survey problems: individual level data, excluded populations
- the consequence of the combination of surveys, administrative data, mapping
- the consequence of the combination of data for different reference groups
Research issues: implementation of multidimensional measures
The example of the international MPI
- Robustness checks (weights, bootstrapping, household size, indicators)
- Aggregation within households – what biases exist?
- Households without eligible populations – the impact on the measure?
- Comparisons across surveys from different years – sample, respondents
- Thorough investigation into the assets indicator in the living standard dimension
- Indicator scrutiny: Stunting, Quality of Education, etc
- Which are the ideal indicators to use for an international MPI?
- Development of MPI-2 appropriate for countries with higher human development.
- Rural/Urban poverty? Should we adjust urban indicators?
- The impact of overlooked populations: elder poverty
General empirical implementation of the AF method: (example of questions)
- Statistical interrelationships among indicators – Systematic.
- The relationship between income/consumption poverty and deprivations
- Combining individual and household level data
- Investigate the issues of intra household inequalities, household composition, predicting household deprivations on multidimensional measures
- Weights (ordinal ranking)
- Development of group-specific indicators (child, ethnic minority)
- Multiple cut-offs with ordinal data (extreme poverty, poverty)
- Develop multidimensional health indicators, quality of schooling, governance, child poverty, etc.
- Use of biomedical data to set weights – nutrition measure
Research issues: the development of the methodology
- Develop time series and panel data methodologies, expand to include chronic poverty
- Robustness tests (weights, cut-offs, indicators)
- Test statistics, measurement error, uncertainty, inference
- Appropriate validation ‘tests’ for national measures
- Algorithm for adjusting weights for ordinal data and M1 M2
- Complementarity and Substitutability
- Chronic Multidimensional Poverty
- Axioms – for Chronic Multidimensional Poverty
- Characterisation of AF
- Axiom – post-identification decomposability
- Use of ordinal data and the depth of poverty
Guide to the video
00:00 Introduction and outline
Part 1: The Different Debates on the AF Method and its Implementation in the Global MPI
00:49 MPI in the Human Development Report 2010 fostered debate and critique from Ravallion and national governments [see Alkire and Foster (2011)]
03:05 Ravallion’s critique
03:58 Critique 1: a single index
10:01 Critique 2: why aggregate to later break the index down afterwards
13:37 Critique 3: attainment vs deprivation space
16:21 Critique 4: prices as weights
19:21 Alternative to index suggested: a dash board (see Identification and Aggregation in the Alkire Foster Method)
28:11 Critique 5: data constraints (can this be avoided?)
30:10 General critiques of international data by OPHI and others, OPHI’s response to data issue critique
32:55 Critique 6: lack of policy consultations/participation of the poor
35:09 The discussion and debate on weights
38:20 Research issues 1: data constraints, the ideal data, surveys etc.
44:34 Research issues 2: implementation of the Alkire Foster method. The example of the global MPI
57:55 Research issues 3: empirical questions
68:17 Research issues 4: development of methodology