Category Archives: Publications

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2017 (2 page briefing)

OPHI Briefing 48 (pdf)

The global MPI is a new generation of multidimensional measures that supports key priorities in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). High-resolution poverty diagnostics are needed to leave no one behind. The global MPI is disaggregated by children, disability status, sub-national regions and rural/urban areas. Linked indices of destitution and severe poverty highlight the very poorest. The SDGs call for analyses of interlinkages across indicators, and the global MPI is built upon household-level multidimensional poverty profiles. The SDGs advocate integrated multisectoral policies. The global MPI unfolds to show the composition of poverty by indicator nationally, and in every disaggregated group.

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles

Year: 2017

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2017 (16 page briefing)

OPHI Briefing 47 (pdf)

The 2017 global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) provides a headline estimation of poverty and its composition for 103 countries across the world. The global MPI measures the nature and intensity of poverty, based on the profile of overlapping deprivations each poor person experiences. It aggregates these into meaningful indexes that can be used to inform targeting and resource allocation and to design policies that tackle the interlinked dimensions of poverty together.

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles

Year: 2017

Children’s Multidimensional Poverty: disaggregating the global MPI

Brief46_thumbOPHI Briefing 46

With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the international community affirmed the importance of eradicating child poverty, identifying within Goal 1 the need to reduce the proportion of men, women and children living in multidimensional poverty. The international definition of a child, also used here, is anyone less than 18 years of age.

Authors: Sabina Alkire, Christoph Jindra, Gisela Robles, Ana Vaz

Year: 2017

Multidimensional Poverty Index – Summer 2017: Brief Methodological Note and Results

MPI Briefing 44 (pdf)

The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) Summer 2017 updates use the same parameters (dimensions, indicators, cutoffs and weights) and the same functional form (Alkire and Foster Adjusted Headcount Ratio M0) as in previous years. This brief methodological note presents the Summer 2017 MPI updates, and releases the tables with the full results: national MPI, destitution and vulnerability results, rural, urban, subnational region, changes over time, and complete estimations, as well as complementary data, dimensional breakdowns, and confidence intervals. Destitution data are now available for 102 countries. It first explains the main updates in the Summer 2017 MPI, following the guidelines for updates presented in the 2014 Methodological Note (Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b). It uses the MPI methodology that has been presented in detail in previous methodological notes (Alkire and Santos 2010; Alkire, Roche, Santos and Seth 2011; Alkire, Conconi and Roche 2013; Alkire, Conconi and Seth 2014b; Alkire and Robles 2015; Alkire, Jindra, Robles and Vaz 2016). Then it briefly describes the methodological assumptions considered for the estimation of each dataset. The results of these estimations are presented in the form of 7 main tables, 103 country briefings and the interactive databank, all available on OPHI’s website (

Authors: Sabina Alkire and Gisela Robles

Year: 2017

How poor are People with Disabilities around the Globe? A Multidimensional Perspective

People with disabilities and their families have been recognised as a high risk population and are particularly likely to be poor and deprived (Mitra, Posarac, & Vick, 2013). Although the number of studies analysing the levels of poverty of this group has increased in the last decade, there is still a lack of empirical evidence that establishes whether and how people with disabilities are significantly poorer (Groce, Kembhavi, et al., 2011). This study aims to analyse the levels of multidimensional poverty of people living in households with members with disabilities, in 11 developing countries from different regions of the world. Using the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (Global MPI), the incidence and intensity of multidimensional poverty of people living in households with and without members with disabilities were calculated and rigorously compared the poverty levels experienced by people living in households in which no member has disabilities. In addition, it studies the levels of destitution and the percentage of individuals living in households with members with disabilities facing severe multidimensional poverty. The results reveal that people living in households with disabled members in four countries face significantly higher levels of multidimensional poverty. These households also contribute more to the national levels of multidimensional poverty than their share in the population. More worryingly, a large percentage of households are not only severely multidimensionally poor but also destitute. It is important to highlight that if disability questions are consistently included in future international multi-topic surveys, these kinds of empirical explorations could become widespread, providing the information required to support households whose members have disabilities and are multidimensionally poor.

Pinilla-Roncancio, M. and Alkire, S. (2017). ‘How poor are people with disabilities around the globe? A multidimensional perspective.’ OPHI Research in Progress 48a, University of Oxford.

National Roundtable & Dashboard for Poverty Reduction in Colombia

Brief45_thumbOPHI Briefing 45

Colombia launched its official multidimensional poverty measure in 2011 – the Colombian Multidimensional Poverty Index (C-MPI).[1]  The index was first used to establish specific policy goals for multidimensional poverty reduction (headcount ratio) as well as sector-specific targets within the National Development Plan – a mandatory and binding strategy that all incoming administrations must have approved by Congress at the beginning of their mandate.

Authors: Diego Zavaleta,  Roberto Angulo

Year: 2017

CONEVAL: institution-building for multidimensional poverty measurement in Mexico

OPHI briefing 44 OPHI briefing 44

In the early 2000s, Mexico launched a process of institution-building for its social development policy and the formulation of an official poverty measure, which led to the creation of the National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy (CONEVAL) and the establishment of the first official multidimensional poverty measure in the world. Today, CONEVAL generates official multidimensional poverty estimates with representative data every two years at the state level and every five at the municipal level.

Authors: Diego Zavaleta, Carolina Moreno

Year: 2017

Human Development, Inequality, and Poverty: Empirical Findings

This paper is devoted to the discussion of empirical findings related to research on the measurement of human development, inequality, and poverty. It is divided into three main sections. In the first of these three sections, we discuss some practical concerns raised about the Human Development Index and how these concerns have been empirically addressed. In the second of these sections, we discuss various empirical studies and findings relating to the level of human development and the level of inequality in human development. Finally, we discuss the empirical research and findings relating to multidimensional poverty.

Citation: Seth, S. and Villar, A. (2017). ‘Human development, inequality, and poverty: Empirical findings’. OPHI Working Paper 111, University of Oxford.

Measuring Human Development and Human Deprivations

This paper is devoted to the discussion of the measurement of human development and poverty, especially in United Nations Development Program’s global Human Development Reports. We first outline the methodological evolution of different indices over the last two decades, focusing on the well-known Human Development Index (HDI) and the poverty indices. We then critically evaluate these measures and discuss possible improvements that could be made.

Citation: Seth, S. and Villar, A. (2017). ‘Measuring human development and human deprivations’. OPHI Working Paper 110, University of Oxford.

Exploring Multidimensional Poverty in China: 2010 to 2014

Most poverty research has explored monetary poverty. This paper presents and analyses the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) estimations for China. Using China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we find China’s global MPI is 0.035 in 2010, and decreases significantly to 0.017 in 2014. The dimensional composition of MPI suggests that nutrition, education, safe drinking water and cooking fuel contribute most to overall non-monetary poverty in China. Such analysis is also applied to sub-groups including geographic areas (rural/urban, east/central/west, provinces), as well as social characteristics such as gender of the household heads, age, education level, marital status, household size, migration status, ethnicity, and religion. We find the level and composition of poverty differs significantly across certain subgroups. We also find high levels of mismatch between monetary and multidimensional poverty at the household level, which highlights the importance of using both complementary measures to track progress in eradicating poverty.

Citation: Alkire, S. and Shen, Y. (2017). “Exploring Multidimensional Poverty in China: 2010 to 2014.” OPHI Research in Progress 47a, University of Oxford.